Election Candidates Platforms 2021

Please note: Candidate statements are presented in order of submission. All candidates were offered space in Haida Laas to provide a message to citizens of the Nation. All submissions by candidates were edited only for grammar, punctuation and Haida place names by Communications staff.

President

Gam Kaayangsdla,ang
Donald ‘Duffy’ Edgars

Good day,   
 
I am Donald ‘Duffy’Edgars, my Haida name is Gam Kaayangsdla,ang.  It means never gives up, or to never give up. Lena Edgars, is my mother, Roxanne Edgars is my wife, I have 3 sons (Aaron, Gregory and Ethan), and I have 2 grandchildren (Landon, and Avery). 

I am running for the president of CHN because I feel now is the time to come together as a Nation. We have been 3 separate entities for far too long (SBC, OMVC and CHN). Since being the Chief Councilor of Gaw Tlagee we have bridged the gap with our Energy projects and have created a 3-way partnership with City west (OMVC, SBC, CHN). 

I believe that: 

  • We need to have our Chief Councilors and possibly Deputies on CHNs executive committee to bring back information to their respectful tables to help make better decisions for the Nation.  
  • More meetings with the public on bigger decisions for the Nation. 
  • We need more benefits coming back to our communities from the Nation.  
  • Carbon credits can be divided for housing projects in our communities, the stumpage can be used for restoration of our rivers. 
  • We need more hatcheries on Haida Gwaii, fish is our way of life, we are ocean people. 
  • We can also do added value from our forest company, meaningful jobs for our communities.  
  • The GayGahlda Changing Tides framework agreement, some of the funds should be distributed to both communities for whatever projects they have in their community comprehensive plans. 

Thank you all that have supported me in the past and moving forward in my political career, I am very passionate for our people and will work as hard as I can, that’s the only way I know how. 

Gam Kaayangsdla,ang 
Donald ‘Duffy’ Edgars 


Laadaa
Colin Richardson

Walking the Path of our Ancestors: My name is Laadaa, my English name is Colin Stuart
Richardson. My Facebook Name: Laadaa Richardson.

From the very beginning, as we emerged from the ocean and through all the ages since, a unified Nation has been our strength. As our ancestors did and as we do today, we have protected these lands and waters from total devastation by foreign exploitation. We have sustained ourselves using long held practices and we remain on this ancestral path as we face today’s perils. Haida blood has flowed in our efforts to protect her … Haida Gwaii.

There are many issues before us in this election and as many possible solutions. Leadership in choosing the right thing to do as a Nation and pulling our people together behind that is crucial to our success. I will provide that leadership. I offer the following to give you a glimpse into my way of thinking and how we may look to our future together.

Recent negotiations with the Crown have resulted in some good news for Haida citizens and I applaud the stated intention of BC and Canada to recognize Haida Title to Haida Gwaii in GayGahlda Changing Tide Framework for Reconciliation. There is a lot of work to bring the negotiated items to fruition and that work includes making sure that title to our ocean territory is recognized by Canada and BC. The recent fisheries reconciliation agreement speaks only to our rights with no mention of title to our ocean territory. Addressing this oversight is a top priority.

I would venture to say that the majority of citizens are dissatisfied with the corporate model we adopted for HaiCo a few years back. A key to any success is a clear sense of why are we doing what we’re doing? Are we happy with the way things are? What needs to change, and why? I think exploring these questions is an important step in resetting HaiCo so that it will work for all of us, and we may feel connected to, and proud of, our enterprises.

The deep trauma of colonization is a constant in our daily lives. A Haida government must turn more attention to the wellbeing of our citizens. Developing a national strategy to look at new ways to move ourselves beyond the trauma is one way to address this matter. A government actively supporting individual and group efforts to break the cycle is critical to all our families and it is obvious that language is integral to this recovery. As president, I will make it a priority to secure long term funding to support our Xaayda kil/Xaad kíl language programs.

Regular communication about government activities is important but I know that there are times when leadership is embarking on a strategic direction and discussing that in public could jeopardize the outcome. Given that, I commit to keep citizens informed about any big decision we need to take. This includes strategic legal direction and negotiations. An open discussion about these activities is critical to our unification. Please check my Facebook page for more details as I will be posting more information a couple of times per week leading up to Election Day on December 4. Please Come Out and Vote.


Gaagwiis
Jason Alsop

Haida Laas,   

It has been a humbling honour to serve as President of the Haida Nation over the last 3 years and I am seeking your support for another term. As President, I have demonstrated an ability to lead the Nation through adversity in our response to the pandemic as well as lead our government through a time of difficult transition. Despite the challenges I have been able to lead the CHN in making significant progress in advancing our position on Haida Title, fisheries access & management, renewable energy, high-speed internet, forestry management and the governance and oversight of HaiCo.    

The CHN, under my guidance, has significantly advanced our position in exercising our inherent Haida Title with the signing of the GayGahlda Changing Tide Framework Agreement. The agreement includes a key principle of recognition of our inherent Haida Title throughout Haida Gwaii, and is now the basis for future negotiations. Our task is now to determine how the Haida Nation would like to apply our laws and jurisdiction throughout our territories and how we designate Haida Title lands in a way that balances our individual and collective rights as described in our constitution. With this approach, we will maintain our Haida Title Case and carry out negotiations at the same time keeping the crown honest and accountable throughout the process. We have also negotiated “good faith measures” which means $100 million dollars upfront to buy out third-party interests and provide for investments in the social and cultural infrastructure needs of our communities, including Haida language.   

Other accomplishments: 

  • Implemented the first ever Haida Gwaii State of Emergency in response to the pandemic, which has helped to keep Haida Gwaii safe with no loss of life.   
  • Fisheries agreement to establish collaborative governance that incorporates Traditional Knowledge and significantly increases commercial access opportunities for Haida citizens through a community-based fishery and coast wide fishery (over $100m) without compromise to our rights. 
  • Greater protection of monumental cedar, reduction of the annual allowable cut and protection of Bluejacket from logging.  
  • Unity on renewable energy through partnership with both village councils, working together to develop a solar project for northern grid to begin in 2022. 
  • Delivery of high-speed internet through CityWest partnership with Haida Nation, ensuring Haida Gwaii was the first community to be connected.   
  • Improved governance and oversight of HaiCo through implementation of governance and operational policies and regular communication. Next is to complete engagement with Haida leadership and citizens on where we want to go as a company to inform strategic planning.  
  • Secured resources to support and stabilize CHN governance ($3m/year for 3 years).

I would like all voters to consider these accomplishments when making your choice in this election. As President, I will be in the best position to see through all of this good work. Throughout this term I have learned a lot about what it takes to represent the diversity of opinions and perspectives within our Nation. I also recognize there is room to improve and grow in communications and engagement and am excited about all of the important discussions we must have as we shape our direction. I have committed 12 years of my life to serving the Nation and I am Committed to Carving our Future Together. 


Gaadgas
Erika Stocker

My name is Erika Stocker, I was born here on Haida Gwaii, and was raised in Gaw Tlagée. Gaadgaas hinuu Xaad Kihl ga dii kyang. I come from the Yahgulaanas, Raven Clan. My family comes from Xuuts Nee – The Grizzly Bear House.  

We are descendants of the Supernatural ancestress known as Sguuluu Jaad foam woman. Our clan, as a whole, is known to be one of the first groups of people on Haida Gwaii, who arrived after a great flood. I currently live in HlGaagilda Skidegate, with my partner Shane, and our two daughters. I have lived here for six years. I would like to share with you some of the reasons I am running for President of the Council of the Haida Nation:  

  

Connection:  

  • I have connections with cultural and political Haida people & leaders in every community. Including Gaw Tlagée, HlGaagilda, Kxeen & T’agwan.  
  • My life experiences have given me a deep & profound understanding of our connection to our lands and waters, and every being on Haida Gwaii.  
  • Being a leader to me is not an elevation to power, it is a submission to duty.  
  • I have cultivated relationships and understanding with people in many departments of our nation over the last 15 years that I have been attending Council of the Haida Nation meetings.  

  

Ancestral responsibilities:  

  • To uphold our values as Haida People, as is stated in our constitution – to be guardians & stewards of the land, sea and air space.  

  

A few other values for example:  

  • Reciprocity 
  • Yahguudang respect 
  • Gin waadluwan gud ahl kwaagid everything is connected 
  • To ask first – consent (consultation) 
  • Tll Yah da to make it right 

  

Consultation:  

  • We have constitutional rights to be consulted about the ongoing processes that the Council of the Haida Nation initiates or is involved in.  
  • Speaking with our chiefs, matriarchs, Elders, good people and youth is key. Consultation is a paramount aspect of being a leader of our nation. I am a facilitator and public speaker by trade.  
  • I will speak on behalf of our people without bias, my heart is in both villages.  

  

Haida Title and Rights:  

  • We have the inherent right to govern our lands, waters and resources, we have the right to educate ourselves.  
  • I have been raised and educated to understand the colonial and genocidal history of our home and people. I have been taught & raised to uphold our title and rights to our territories.  
  • We as the Haida Nation, are the authority here. I believe in continuing to foster healthy and respectful relationships with each other and the settlers of our lands. The power of the Haida Nation rests in the heart and minds of the people. Through my work at Restorative Justice, I have been upholding our title and rights in the Provincial and Federal Court for the last 3 years.  

  

Language & Cultural Involvement:  

  • I have learned Haida language and culture a of my life. I have attended linguistic programs in Old Massett, SHIP, & the Skidegate Language Nest. I have completed over 100 hours of Language Mentoring with Niiswaan Harvey Williams and the late Roy Jones Sr.  
  • Reconciliation is one part of the entirety of the workload, I am confident that my negotiation skills learned from the Uvic School of Business and on going negotiation training will suit me well for this position.  

  

Food Sovereignty:  

  • Our food is our medicine, we need health and healing for every one of our people so we can remain strong and connected to our lands and waters. I have established a network of food harvesters: berry pickers, fisherman and hunters, including many on island gardeners. As the President I will strive to ensure Haida Gwaii is well on its way to being Food Secure & Sovereign.  

  

When elected, other areas I would like to expand on include:  

  • Strengthen our Governance & Communication as a Council, with the people, SHN Staff, local Band Councils & all island community leadership. 
  • Incorporate societies for our urban Haidas 
  • Support the creation of the University of Haida Gwaii, based on our own values. 

  

We have wise and intelligent people. It will take all of us to create the world we want and need to thrive in. I am here, for the people. Haaw’aa so much for your confidence and support!  

Agan hla kyangaay laa guu – take care of yourselves.


Ronald Brown Jr.

Leadership: Positive leadership working with Chiefs Council, Band Councils, Matriarchs, follow up on House of Assembly motions. 

Finances: Hire KMPG or other credible financial accountants to train our finance personnel in all aspects of accounting, reporting, track all funds coming in and going out. 

Haida Accord: This was done to get us to court, needs to be completed and included as part of the constitution.  

Haida Unity: Everybody needs to feel that their voice will be heard, if they want to speak to CHN issues which includes “all Haidas”. 

Major Drug Problem: Treatment centres, our people are struggling to quit drugs, no real help here on Haida Gwaii. 

Tripartite: Needs to be worked on for positive changes, missing economic opportunities. 

Supporting Outside Nations: Wet’suwet’en against LNG and government forcing their way through their territory.    

Forestry: Back to clear cutting, worst logging practices in Canada, Monumental trees are fallen without charges (No Charges) Husby: Why the hell is he still taking wood unscaled? 

Sportfishing: All lodges need to give back to the fish, all contribute to local hatcheries via mandatory head tax. 

 
Vice-President

Ganaay (WITHDRAWN)
William ‘Billy’ Yovanovich

Haida Citizens, 
 
My name is Ganaay, Billy Yovanovich. I am seeking your support in the upcoming CHN Election for the seat as Vice-President. I’m coming with a proven track record. I have been involved with many projects over the near 12 years that I have sat with SBC, 4 years as a Councillor and almost 8 as chief councilor. So, the question why move from Band Council to the CHN? Well, when I joined SBC in the year 2010 our band was in dire financial shape and in remedial management on the cusp of third-party management. We all worked tirelessly to turn things around. It was a big relief to have our finances in good standings. SBC has been solvent ever since and currently is in its best financial shape probably ever. SBC has a sizeable chunk of own source revenue and has made substantial investments in Guaranteed Investment Certificates (small returns but no risk). With finances remaining in good standings SBC was deemed eligible for 10-year grants.  

So, I feel good being able to hand off the torch to the next council. My interest in the CHN is that I feel it hasn’t been serving all of us as good as it should be. So, its sit back and complain or step up. I have chosen to let my name stand for VP as I feel all my years with SBC has prepared me to serve our Haida Nation. Working with OMVC has drawn our communities together. As VP I will build on that and unite all 3 Haida entities. OMVC, SBC and CHN need to be working together and not just talking about it. In my role as VP I will keep a close eye on HaiCo and ensure mentoring and/or training are happening and aren’t just the buzz words that we keep hearing. My experience on band council gives me firsthand knowledge on what wasn’t working which is staying in our own silo’s. I’d look for ways to support programs the bands currently have without recreating them so as not to increase administration costs.  

I hear the concerns about transparency and lack of public input. I am used to a comprehensive community plan and feel that would be a doable task to develop a plan for the Haida Nation and get input from all Haidas on and off-reserve. A road map will be developed for future councils to use. With my governance training I will ensure elected CHN reps will take a governance role and stay out of administration. I have also worked behind the scenes supporting our language program (SHIP) and seen all the work they have done over the years. I would actively work on a building for a language program up north (I know there are funds out there for such) and I will commit to seeking core funding for both dialects.  

I am also aware that a new admin building in the north has yet to be built and I would commit to working on that. I like to keep things moving so I know our Nation will notice the progress. I am always advocating for wellness. I have been clean and sober for coming up on 14 years! Prior to that had my own struggles with drugs and alcohol so I understand those challenges and also know the great feeling of being free of all that. Even on my own time I have and will continue supporting those who need it.  

Recently I have been part of a team that is offering another option to treatment for trauma, grief, and addiction with a substance called 5MEODMT and have heard encouraging feedback from a few clients. Housing is another concern that needs CHN to support and I would commit to find solutions to improve the current situation.  

A vote for me is a vote for progress, I will work with all others whom are elected and gel the team so we can all work together. This new upcoming mandate is very important to all of us so I’m offering up my experience to be part of the team. Please consider casting your ballot for myself and I will promise to keep things moving and you will see noticeable improvements. Stay well and stay safe.  

Haawa Billy 


Ginn wadluu un uula isdaa ayaagang
Trevor Russ

STABILITY. TEAMWORK. COMMITMENT. HAIDA LIFE. HAIDA VALUES. 

I, Trevor Russ, graciously accept the nomination to run for the office of Vice-President for a fourth term and seek your support. I bring knowledge and understanding as current Vice-President. 

We always hold onto the fact we are true stewards of our Island. We are moving into a time where the Crown acknowledges our title to the land and with this title, comes the responsibility to manage the land and ensure the well-being of our people. We rely on Haida Gwaii to provide so much for our way of life, we must ensure she remains in good health in order to provide. 

 

Stability: I believe as CHN continues on the path of self-government, my experience and knowledge brings value to the team elected to carry out the mandate. 

In the last 14 years, as elected Council of the Haida Nation Board member, I served two terms as an elected representative for Gaw Tlagée and currently in office as elected Vice-President for three terms. During my tenure with CHN, I will continue to represent the interests of the people at numerous governing tables, including Gwaii Trust, Coastal First Nations, Marine Protected Area Network, to name a few.  

Teamwork: The CHN recently signed the GayGahlda Changing Tides Framework Agreement with Canada and BC, it sets the table to begin negotiations with the Crown, with their full recognition of Haida Title to all of the land on Haida Gwaii. I believe our ability to meet our objectives as a Nation must include our communities; band councils, working with civic communities, to bring forward a vision that we can all support, for the well-being of our home.   

Commitment: Engagement for the last few years has been challenging as we navigate through the COVID-19 pandemic, I believe for the Haida citizens to support the work of the Council of the Haida Nation, we need to reach more of our community through engagement. When agreements and policies are developing, I support having smaller settings for citizens to provide their input into the drafting process.  

 

I believe in the vision of the Council of the Haida Nation, the mandate of the Haida Constitution and the connectedness of the Haida Accord.  

A great path has been started for us to follow, to clear the path for the next generation is our duty. 

Haaw’a Haida Nation for your continued support. 

Gaw Tlagée Regional

Guuday guud Dlaaya
Vince Collison

I am running for one of the four seats to represent Gaw Tlagée with the Council of the Haida Nation. 
 
I believe in the Council of the Haida Nation (CHN).  
 
The CHN was first created to focus more intently on what was called the “Lands Question” during that time.  
 
While Canada and British Columbia have had various names for their side ever since then, the one consistent is the steadfast Haida Nation as it evolved internally over the years to better address the ever-changing laws and obstacles Canada & BC put in the middle of the negotiation’s tables.  
 
My primary background includes working for the Xaad kíl (Haida Language) Haida culture and Haida history.  
 
I’ve also represented before to assist in the process of helping to chair quarterlies, work sessions and Annual House of Assembly meetings.  
 
The process of informing and consulting continues to be a major issue and needs to be addressed going forward as well.  
 
The Haida are one of the most researched Indigenous Peoples & our job today ironically is to translate old linguists & researchers work into a Haida context that makes sense for Haida today & succeeding generations.  
 
Preservation of what we have left on the lands & waters is paramount in the overall success of all we hope to achieve in the evolving process of the creation of a true Haida governance.  
 
The stark realities exist for us yet as the Haida join all Indigenous across North America in the shared work of fighting for and preserving the ancient storied lands & waters, Xaad kíl – Xaayda kil (Haida language), history & culture. 
 
Everything is connected. Today we strive to carry on this Haida expression with practical work on the lands and waters. I hope we can establish a Northern Haida Watchmen Program to better look after our ancient villages.  
 
Utilizing all the tools and resources we have accumulated collectively in the Haida language too is a hope of mine to achieve. There are many dedicated hard working people who hard at work with what they have but I hope the CHN can assist with more resources and funding.  
 
Howaa for the opportunity to represent the Haida Nation & best of luck to all the candidates. 


Yáalth íiwaans
Dareyl Brown

I am running as we need huge change on how things work and have been run from the past. Time to move forward from the colonial times and back to when we were the strongest Nation out there. I would like to look at our resources we have left which is not much of either in our forests and our waters as they have been, well let’s just say, not too well managed over the years. Also, we need to get our language in the north recorded as well from what few Elders and speakers we have left, as well as the dictionary like our south relations, and to get our youth more involved so that they feel what’s it like and learn the ways of their culture. I for one don’t speak our language and wish I had kept learning from our great teachers like Nonnie Mary, when we were in elementary school but they also have to incorporate it into the high school curriculum for our youth to be able to carry on learning spelling, singing, an talking our language!  

If elected as a rep, I will not only be a voice for Gaw Tlagée but for our Nation, as I come from not only Gaw Tlagée but also from HlGaagilda from very powerful members of both communities! Time for equality in our Nations business, work together to make this a well-oiled machine and make the government know CHN exists to those governments that don’t acknowledge it as a political body! These are just a few things that have bothered not only me but quite few people that have either conversation to me or round me. I am always straight forward and don’t hide nothing from no one, got no time for BS, or what some these youth these days call it drama. So, if have any questions and want to talk feel free and stop me on the street or even come by for quick visit as I hope we vote in the right people for the right reasons as I not in this for a popularity vote, I want work with some great people and great leaders that want change and make our Nation powerful force.  
 

Howaa and good luck to all candidates!! 


Kalaagaa Jaad
Tarah Samuels

Xaadáa ‘láaisis, Kalaagaa Jaad hánuu díi kyá’aang. (The late) Eugene Samuels díi tsin uu íijang. Nora Samuels díi náa.n uu íigang. Carrie díi ‘aww uu íijang. Steve díi xáad uu íijang. Zion is my son.

I am speaking to you regarding my nomination to represent Gaw Tlagée on the Council of the Haida Nation.

About me:
I was born in Masset, and raised in
Gaw Tlagée. I have moved to and from T’agwan for academic and work experience. My education background is dynamic. I have done extremely well in First Nations history, First Nations Law, business ethics, and Indigenous community development courses. I also have a Business Management Degree in Administration which has provided me with a wide range of opportunities to take courses such as organizational and human resources development.  

My dynamic work experience has allowed me to bring a balanced perspective and experience in problem solving and planning for the future. I will also bring teambuilding, negotiation, and conflict resolution experience to the table. 

I have developed a multi-dimensional approach to how I view and analyze what’s on the table and will think thoroughly and strategically when assessing every task on the table.  

I am a Xaadáa Aawaa and this has been a driving force which has motivated me both personally, and professionally. I am very passionate about ensuring that any decisions that we make be reflective of what community feels is best for our children, youth, culture, and elders. 

Many of my passions include:  

  • Indigenous self-determination sovereignty, and economy building. 
  • First Nations Title and Rights and the assertion of jurisdiction of rights and responsibilities.  
  • Workforce development, and the management and operations of governance and finance administration.  
  • Restoration of Haida ways of being as present and exercised as much as possible.  
  • Empowering and creating space for community voice and engagement. 
  • Strong & healthy Haida governance that reflects community voice and values. 
  • Decision making: Long-term planning, reasoning, and reflection.  
  • Haida history, culture, music/performance, and language. 
  • Haida implementation of UNDRIP.

My vision: 

  • Inclusion of and presence of Haida values into programs, projects, and services.  
  • 7-generation decision making and responsible stewardship.  
  • Self-sustainability for our citizens, communities, land, and Nation.

I see many exciting opportunities for our Nation to continue to grow and prosper. I would consider myself honoured to contribute to our Nations development.  

How I will contribute: [insight, abilities, and strategy] 

  • Financial and economic [development]  
  • Community engagement & development  
  • Policy analysis and development 
  • Strategic planning: Nation building, including human resources development 
  • Cultural integration (Indigenize)

Háw’aa for your interest and attention to my bio and portfolio. 


Blanche Bell

Blanche Bell hinuu dii kyaang 
K’awaas sduu dii isgaagang 
Velma Bell hinuu dii Naan kyaang 
Laverne Bell hinuu dii Aw kyaang 
 

I have worked in public service for almost my entire adult working life. 

I worked in Xaad kíl for many years – and was fortunate enough to learn from many of our Elders. 

I believe as a community we have the knowledge, power and strength to continue setting the precedence of Indigenous consultation.  

It is highly important for Haida women to use our voices. We keep our lineages strong and moving forward.  

Policy with the Nations best interest at heart starts in the homes of our people.  

 

Together we make a difference. 

With many voices we are stronger. 

We have the power to shape our collective future.  
 

With open and fair communications all things are possible.

Haw’aa for your time and energy. 
 

Blanche Bell 


Stephen ‘Buck’ Grosse

Good day everyone, 

I’m Stephen ‘Buck’ Grosse and I am from the Sgidaa Kaw Raven Clan. Ida Smith was my Naanii and my mother is Mary Grosse (Smith), our Clan Matriarch. I am seeking to be re-elected for a 3rd term as an Gaw Tlagée representative for the CHN.

As a Nation we find ourselves in very exciting and challenging times. We have great opportunities with both the GayGahlda Changing Tides Reconciliation Framework Agreement and the Fisheries Resource Reconciliation Agreement and must be strategic with how we proceed moving forward. As a member of the CHN Executive this last term, I was kept closely updated on the progress of both agreements and bring with me a thorough knowledge base in both. These are huge and important steps forward for the Haida People, and I hope to continue to be a part of this good work.   

To continue with this good work, we need dedicated, reliable people to move these agreements forward. I have the time, drive and dedication to be one of these people. I’m a hard-working, honest person who only wants what is best for our people. I sit on several committees, Chair two of them, spend my evening reading reports, and rarely miss any meetings. 

As a mechanic at TLC, I work in a public setting and constantly have our people come and have conversations with me about Nation business. I am always open and willing to talk to anyone who has input for the CHN. I am honest in those conversations and if I don’t know the answer, I find it for them. 

I am passionate about the CHN and hope to be re-elected to continue to serve as a representative for Gaw Tlagée and for the Nation. 

  

Haw’aa for your support. 

Stephen ‘Buck’ Grosse 


Kuun Jaadas
Adeana Young

Hello Good People,  

My name is Adeana Young and I belong to the Ts’aahl Laanas/Jaanas Clan. My Haida name is Kuun Jaadas. I put my name forward to run in this election as Gaw Tlagée representative because I have a passion to make positive changes. I have been directly involved in local politics for the past ten years. I started as an administrative support with the Heritage and Natural Resources Department at SHN in 2011. Once I was finished there, I ran in the 2016 OMVC election where I was a successful candidate. I ran again for OMVC in their 2019 by-election where I served another year and a half. I have one more year as a School Board Trustee with School District 50 Haida Gwaii.  

During my time on Council and as a School Board Trustee I’ve gained a range of skills and taken many opportunities to advocate and speak at multiple forums with Federal and Provincial Ministers. Some of the successes that I had were helping receive funding for Professional and Institutional Development for our band. In the second year of being on Council I was voted as Deputy Chief Councillor. In the last year of being on Council I supported a BCR that removed the health portfolio from being under Band jurisdiction to being a Society under the BC Societies act, one step away from being  under the Indian Act. I have also been asked to sit on the Renewable Energy Committee through the BC School Trustees Association.  

One of the greatest opportunities that I took in the last several months was to run in the Federal Election as the Green Party Candidate. What I gained from that is a seat in the Shadow Cabinet as the critic for the Reconciliation and Indigenous Affairs portfolio. Shadow Cabinet critics are a team of individuals who act as Senior Advisors to the party leader in the background. We also provide feedback and help respond to media when questions arise that pertain to our portfolios. The first piece I wrote for the Green Party of Canada was on the inaugural Truth and Reconciliation Day, September 30, 2021.  

While I have an interest in several portfolios with CHN I would like to focus on sitting with the Executive Committee. With the experience I gained over the years I feel there is a lot to contribute. I would also like to sit on the Policy Committee and the Heritage and Natural Resources Committee.  

In closing I want to wish all the Candidates the best of luck and good things to come out from this experience. I humbly ask Gaw Tlagée Haida citizens for your support to represent you to the best of my ability. I am always open to hear new things and to share how we can think outside the box because I truly believe #StatusQuoMustGo. I can be reached via email at adeanayoung@gmail.com or via phone at 250-922-4393. Please like and follow #AdeanaSaid #ImHlaaya on Facebook and Twitter.  

  

Yahgudang, 
Kuun Jaadas Ts’aahl Laanas/Jaanas 
Adeana Young 


Qwaanda | Jaawaguusd
Michael ‘Mick’ Morrison

Haida Laisis, 

I am happy to put my name forward as a representative for Gaw Tlagée on the council of the Haida Nation. I have a wealth of experience working in different fields since the age of sixteen. I have been a fisherman, a welder, an Indigenous liaison, a miller and builder of longhouses, and a business owner. I believe in sovereignty, rights, and title for our Nation on our island Haida Gwaii.   
 
We all see the changes that have happened over the years, some good, a lot not so good. Our trees are disappearing (especially our sacred cedar), our fish and fishing rights are disappearing, and our land being bought up and privatized. Like many in our Nation I have little or no knowledge of the agreements that have been recently signed. I hope that they are good agreements steering us in the right direction, and I would like to be a part of making positive changes for our people. One of the most important changes I would like to see happen is to get our power source off of diesel and create new sources of green energy. I have been trying to connect the right people to make this happen through a green energy initiative that could access us to $200,000,000.00 to make this happen. As well as energy I am interested in fisheries, as that has been a major part of my working career. I remember when we all owned boats, before we became licensed out of the industry. Another big concern for me is our forests. We had three major protests to stop the destruction of our forests through logging, and the first protest created Gwaii Trust. The second protest created Taan forest, and the third made criminals in the eyes of the court of the people who stood up for our trees. Every resource our Islands have has been exploited for too long, without any benefits to our people other than jobs. Our greatest resource though is our children. We need to insure through education, protection from drugs and alcohol, and language and culture, that our children will have a sustainable future.   
 

I say haawa for this opportunity and ask for your votes. 
 
Michael (Mick) Morrison 


Kuuyas 7waahlal gidaak
Lisa Hageman

Haida Gwaii is our home that feeds us, nourishes our creativity and anchors the multitudes of generations before us and long after we are gone. My interest in joining the CHN is to assist in any small way that I can to preserve and protect our Island Nation. If we can identify areas that might in future be problematic or contaminating to our lands and waters, I would hope that we could work together to be assertively proactive. We have been successful in being reactive in the face of imminent disasters in the past. We have come together in those difficult times and I would like to work to contribute to all of us working together in advance of them. Let’s be forward thinking, progressive and innovative. Let’s protect our land and waters so we can focus on preserving and nourishing the knowledge of our Elders and seeing that knowledge flourish in our young people. 

One of my goals in returning home to live was to bring visitors to Haida Gwaii who will appreciate, and align themselves with, our way of caring for the earth. I would like to work towards bringing in more financial benefit to our communities through eco-tourism. As climate awareness and devastation escalates, a pristine Haida Gwaii becomes more precious not only to us but to visitors from far and wide. 

My thanks to Eileen Jones and Trevor Russ for the nudge to put my name forward and the nomination. I am a member of the Yahgujanaas/Yahgulanaas clan of Gaw Tlagée. I weave, I fish our waters and I walk our beaches. There is never a day when I am not grateful for our abundance. I would be honoured to participate in preserving all that we are entrusted with protecting. 


Non-Submission: Tracey Moore

HlGaagilda Regional

Daal Skil
Randolph ‘Randy’ Pryce

Haida laas, I was honoured by the nomination. I am happy to serve the Nation as a HlGaagilda rep. Our last House of Assembly was evident that the people want changes with regards to the way our business is conducted. There are many challenges coming up and I look forward to see those changes come to fruition. I encourage you to reach out and talk with me about your concerns and thoughts on how your families are doing and making out in these challenging times. I am very approachable and have always been a good listener. Good luck to all the candidate’s, I hope to talk with you soon. 


Gidin Jaad
Erica Ryan

Kuljaad Gaanga, Kilslaay Gaanga, Dii hltaaxuulang kuya isis. Women held in high esteem, Chiefs, My precious friends. Dang ‘waadluxan Gaaw hll kil ‘laa ga. I thank you all for being here. Ging.gang yahguudangs ‘ang.Ga kaa kyang.Ga Gil ga. You show yourself respect by coming. Gidin Jaad hanuu dii kiiGa ga. Eagle Woman (Erica Jean Reid) is my English name. Dii k’uustak ga. I am an eagle. Naa’Yuwans Xaaydagaay ad uu dii kiiGawa ga. The Big House People is my clan. Wiigaanads id Gan k’uulaga. Wiiganaads (Sidney Crosby) is my Chief. Dii Xaayda Gas ad dii guudang.ngaay ‘yuwan ga. I am Haida and I am feeling proud. Haawa dalang k’aay.ya kuuyas is. Thank you, precious Elders. Gina Gan dalang unsids iid gii dalang t’aaslaas. For leaving behind your knowledge. Dalang Gan t’alang yahguudang gang. We have respect for you. Ginda da isdas k’waayindaya, ga da isdayay sGuuna waagii kilxii gang ga. What you do matters, all you need is to do it. Xaayda gwaaGalang yanjiihlii daagwii Gasdll ga. The Haida Nation is getting really strong. Gud ad id daagwiiyah ga. Together we are strong. 

I am honoured to accept a nomination with the intention to represent HlGaagilda as your elected Regional Representative for our Council of the Haida Nation. I have been attending our House of Assemblies for many years, listening to the discussions taking place, and waiting for the right time to add my voice to the important work of our Nation. I am ready for this challenge. I have listened. I have learned. And now, I feel the time is right for me to speak up, and to represent HlGaagilda in a good way. I am no stranger to challenges. I have had to overcome many challenges in my journey, and along the way, I have gained much strength and knowledge that will benefit our Nation. 

11 years ago, I wanted to add something that was missing from our village. I also wanted to create a balanced life, so when I was ready to have kids, I would be able to manage my business in a sustainable way. I had never operated a business before, so the learning curve was steep. I was persistent and I worked hard. In 2011 my business won an Indigenous Business Award as Young Entrepreneur of the Year. More recently, my family moved away from Haida Gwaii, so I could complete my Bachelor of Education degree as it has been a goal of mine for many years to learn Haida. It was important for me to contribute to our community, and the revitalization of our language and culture. 

 I have recently graduated with my degree, and am ready to continue doing good work for our great Haida Nation. All of my experiences have taught me important lessons. Through operating a small business for the last 10 years while completing university, raising a family, and investing in the young women in our village, I have learned how to maintain a level head and a well-rounded approach to problem-solving. I am excited to use my strengths and these experiences for the benefit of our Nation. 

It is my goal to pour my energy and efforts into the Communication, Language, and Culture Committees while advocating for education. I want to ensure these do not fall to the wayside as each is a necessity requiring our care and attention while moving forward on our long journey to achieving Haida Rights and Title. Consultation within our Nation, especially to our membership needs to be front and center to all our Nation’s work. I bring a grounded, positive, hardworking, fair, language and culturally based spirit and presence guided by our Haida ways of knowing and being. I am honoured and ask to receive your vote for your HlGaagilda Representative while I walk this new path with our Nation. 


Roy Jones Jr.

I’m running for the HlGaagilda Representative for the Council of the Haida Nation with the intention to develop and diversify the well-being of our Haida People, through building a stronger economic future.  

  • In 2015 I worked as a consultant for Enbridge for 19 months, through this process I have learned a lot about shipping and transportation in and around our waters of Haida Gwaii, and around the world. The dependence on low economic countries like China, India, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Vietnam; to name a few. This dependence on shipping, includes the need for Coastal Protection which today is run by people in Halifax, Nova Scotia, with a crew from the East Coast of Canada. This should not be so. The Indigenous People of the Northwest Coast should own and operate the tugs to protect our coast. It’s absolutely necessary that our leadership needs to pay close attention to the activities going on in Kxeen at the port and all the other ports in the pacific. We should be working on gaining those contracts to employ our people. There are many opportunities to be explored and it doesn’t have to be a continuous play to log the old growth forests on Haida Gwaii. 
  • I have spent 40 years of my life trying to get DFO to deal with the overpopulation of pinepinds (seals and sea lions) and their huge impact on salmon and other fin fish. From California to Alaska this is an ongoing and ever-growing problem. I have been working on developing courses on the traditional harvest with the intention to build up the economic opportunities as a solution to the over population and diversify job opportunities. On the 7th of August 2021 we had a meeting on the Columbia River at Kelso Washington and we met with 15 Senators from Washington, Oregon & Washington DC, this meeting was about the Columbia River’s salmon and other fin fish suffering the impact of seals and sea lions. 
  • There are many opportunities that we can capitalize on and we need to first explore our Haida Human Resources, look into the future and see how we can train and develop programs to build an economy around these opportunities: aqua culture, mining, added value in the forest industry, government contracts, green energy projects & many other opportunities that can come to our table! Everything must be explored, seek out partnerships with industry. We’ve seen 100% Haida Owned and Operated does not work, opportunities we have purchased did not have the expertise to survive the Haida personalities, on one opportunity brought to the Haida was blown off because we wanted 100% Haida and today we have 100% of nothing!

Health and Education should be on the top of the list for the Council of the Haida Nation to ensure the future of health care for our people, we have seen the Health Care deteriorate over the years and as a people classed as wards of the Government this should not happen! We can decolonize this and ensure better care for everyone.  

I strongly believe we need to reunite as a people and correct many of the wrongs within our Haida society, in the past two administrations we’ve seen our leaders break the Haida Accord as well as many violations in the Constitution of the Haida Nation! I have a lot to bring to the table of the Council of the Haida Nation, key issues would be Health Care, a dress code, coastal protection, relationships to include; domestic, international, corporate, local business and most important of all community relations have to be improved!  

Vote: Roy S Jones Jr – representative for HlGaagilda for the Council of the Haida Nation 


Kung Xangajii
Shawn Cowpar

We are facing a pivotal time within our Nation Governance, moving forward in management and effective decision making over our lands and waters for future generations. Continuing to build on improved communication and understanding with community concerns over complicated topics and issues. I have continued to engage and work collectively in supporting our Nations mandate for Title and Rights of Haida Gwaii as your elected representative. As your representative, I will be seeking re-election and your continued support in this upcoming election, haawa. 

Kung Xangajii 
William Shawn Cowpar 


Xyallaga Daaguuyah
Desi Collinson

Open, Honest, and Approachable.

 

 

 

Kxeen Regional

Kaakuns
Pansy Collison

My name is Pansy Collison my Haida name is Kaakuns I come from the Tsaahl lanass eagle clan. I’m running for Kxeen Representative again. I’m a really dedicated rep. My goal is always to get food fish for our region, lately we’ve been sharing our food fish with terrace. Plus, I think we really have to set fish policies with the fisheries committee, but my goal will remain the same. I have 3 degrees and a Master’s in education which helps to make decisions for the Haida Nation. I understand the constitution and many policies of the Haida Nation because I spend 16 years as a representative. I think I’m the longest standing rep because I enjoy being a rep. I take great pride and I’m quite loyal and dedicated to being a rep. 

I’m not afraid to ask questions and I contribute a lot on the committees I’m allocated. The committees I’m currently on are SHN, policy, culture & language, youth conference, and education and fisheries committee. 

Vote Pansy for your rep! 


Guud Kwiias
Charlene Fast

Xaad Kii’hl’gaa Guud Kwiiaas Hiinuu Dii K’yaang. Ts’aahl Jaanaas (Double Headed Eagle clan) Sduu Dii Iisgaagang. My given name is Charlene. I was born and raised on Haida Gwaii, Gaw Tlagée. I moved to Kxeen August 2010 at the age of 30. I strongly believe it is time for a change in representatives in our region for the reason being that the teachings and learning’s need to be passed-on for a continued strength in the future. We need to become mentors for our future children to inherit our rights and laws of our traditional lands, water and air. Also, to acquire new perspectives and have fresh spoken communication at all tables. With all due respect to past representatives, I honour and respect your work and knowledge. I will also work hard for continued support for our region and also look forward to working with you no matter which level were at.  

As a younger, well, newly middle-aged woman. I strongly believe that if we cannot fully identify within ourselves who we are as Haida’s there will be a void of who we are as Haida people and disconnect to being a stronger Nation. Once we find our guidance and sense of belonging into which we are we can stand strong and protect our lands, waters, air and ways of traditional living. Our children and grandchildren are our future. Our full definition of being Haida will be unknown to ourselves until we find our sense of belonging. It is my hope to strengthen our urban culture by being transparent and seeking ways to come together more.   

Coming from a beautiful and strong matriarchal society, I am always connected to my roots no matter where I am. I am holding a strong passion as I just became a grandmother to my first granddaughter Haana. I feel the sole determination to full-fill this position with strength in confidence, sociability and grace.   

Courage of strength within and a new deep drive to seek out further knowledge and to share this continued learning with all generations to thin that space in making “us” as a Nation that much stronger. All of our children and grandchildren are the future. What we leave for them will have a significant impact. Knowing who I am is my back bone, even greater knowing who we are as a Haida Nation is our traditional spirits.   

Within this reach to become a representative for the Kxeen region I find it within myself to gain a positive outcome for all Haida members in a friendly, approachable, and positive manner:  

  • To seek continued food fish supply. Which we all know we appreciate.   
  • Encourage more cultural and family functions. 
  • Accountability, Trust, Fairness, Compassion and Transparency is key to me. 
  • Overall, I seek endless learning in working with the CHN governance body for the Nation. No matter where we live, we are all accounted as a Nation.

Jessie Hamilton Dii Nonn Uu Iijan, Haawa creator for our Elders we have with us today as they are our deepest treasures to our culture, our history, and to our teachings. What our Elders stood for is my inspiration for our Haida Nation.  

Haawa for everyone’s support, best wishes to all. 


Non-Submission: Bill White, Dave Delill

T'agwan Regional

Xaay Gaas Jaad
Sylvia Williams

Hello good people of the Haida Nation, 

My name is Xaay Gaas Jaad natural weaver, my English name is Sylvia Williams I come from the St’langng Laanas Jaanas Raven clan from Yan. My mother’s name is hereditary chief Skil Kwii’tlaas Judy Williams my father’s name is the late Mark Bell My stepfather is Brian Bell.

I was born and raised in Gaw Tlagée where I worked with Elders and youth most of my life in Gaw Tlagée. 

I moved to T’agwan in 2016 for photography schooling with the intention I would be back in Haida Gwaii after school. As the years go by, I see myself calling T’agwan my new home away from home. 

I want to represent our Haida Nation in the T’agwan area and the lower main land, to give voice to our concerns from the city of T’agwan and lower mainland. 

In T’agwan and the lower main land, I have been out protecting our lands with some great land protectors voicing my words to the government on how our old growth trees need to be left alone not only on our Haida land but all across BC and how no pipe lines can be put in to save our traditional foods and our lands.

I am very excited to be running for the position of T’agwan Regional Representative for the Council of the Haida Nation. I have an understanding of the unique challenges and opportunities for Haida citizens in T’agwan. 

My vision is for Haida citizens in T’agwan to be healthy, active, supported, and connected. Traditionally, we were strong and stand as one I think there is a great opportunity for my generation to start learning the ways so that we can keep teaching for many years to come up our next generations to come. There are many goals that we can reach, but to start, we need to focus on practical and feasible solutions. I am ready to listen to all Haida Nations young and old, who would like to sit and share ideas with me to connect our visions to those of our greater nation.  

I hope you will consider voting for me in the upcoming election. Haaw’a. 

I look forward to being a part of CHN as T’agwan representative and helping my fellow Haidas in T’agwan area in any way I can.   


Sd’aasd
Buster Bell

Political Platform of Sd’aasd Buster Bell
Policy Analysist / Federal Government 
Indigenous / Xwulmuxw Studies / Resource Management (RMOT) 
Su’ luqw ‘a’ (Community Cousins – Aboriginal Mentor) 

My name is Buster Bell, and I am running for CHN T’agwan Representative to promote a meaningful difference for Urban Haidas. I believe that my experience and education will ensure a strong voice for Urban Haidas contributing to a strengthened nationhood: I have studied and achieved a four-year degree in Indigenous Governance and Resource Management; I have working knowledge of the federal and provincial government; I have worked in the commercial fishing industry for 20 years; and for a brief time, worked as an OMVC representative before I left for university. I have recently worked for the Snuneymuxw First Nation as a Governance Intern and Marine Resource Manager. 

I believe that a cohesive and energetic administration, uniting both the Elders and the youth, is important to nurturing the growth of our government. I believe that the political strength from our Nation can benefit every member, both urban and local, creating and maintaining a sense of community. Therefore, I believe that improved communication and equal opportunities should be established and supported by CHN as important reminders of coordinated support. 

  1. Improving communication to the Urban population:
    1. Advocate on behalf the urban population to CHN administration for improved transparency:
      1. To be transparent means to share our thoughts and opinions honestly and respectfully.
      2. Transparency will be my approach to communicate and form a bond that will emphasize being direct with people in our government.
      3. The more transparency there is in from our government, the more candid conversations there can be between individuals and CHN leaders. 
      4. Transparency is especially useful in increasing productivity and improving overall government performance because it avoids confusion and promotes sincere interaction.
  2. Working to insure all Haidas have equal opportunities:
    1. There should be equal opportunities for Haida’s who leave to get educated when it comes to working for our Nation:
      1. When our Nation is seeking new professional employees, various avenues should be used to attract a wide variety of applicants.
        1. CHN should provide priority to our members if they meet and/or exceed the job description. 
      2. Create mentorships that pair our youth that are attending university and who want to attend university with non-Indigenous employees that are working for our Nation.
        1. Participation in the program will have students understanding different characteristics of a job while including traditional values to help develop cultural awareness and sensitivity.
        2. This approach combines primary historical documents on Haida history and culture, with input from Haida Elders.
        3. Ensure focus on topics dealing with community-environment relationships, values, current issues, and the contributions of Indigenous Peoples to environmental knowledge and the resolution of resource problems.
        4. This cross-cultural approach helps teach the youth as well as develop educational curiosity to recognize programs and understand courses that can challenge them to take a culturally sensitive stand on issues of culture, environment, and sustainability. 
  3. Ensuring transparency and Engagement:
    1. Engage in meaningful communications sessions with urban Haidas to receive feedback, views, perspectives, as well as ensuring ongoing sharing of information through social media or by utilizing social platforms (Zoom, MS Teams).
      1. Using social media as an outreach tool will help to keep everyone informed and aware of issues and concerns from back at home.
      2. Just because we live in the city, doesn’t mean that we don’t need to understand the content of what is happening back at home, all decisions still affect everyone.

Laanas
Tamara Davidson

Xaadáa ‘laa isis. Dalang aa uu Hl kil ‘laagang. Dii uu Yagulanaas-gaagang. Laanas hin uu dii kya’aang. Good People, I am proud to be running to become your T’agwan Representative for the Council of the Haida Nation.  

Every decision made by the Council of the Haida Nation needs to be built from our foundation of Haida culture, laws, history, and people. We must find ways to hold each other up and to hold the Haida Nation up, making sure everyone benefits from its successes. As your rep, I will show up, participate, witness and advocate for our needs here in the city. I will keep you informed about the direction and decisions our government is making. But it is not enough to just inform, I will work to ensure the information being shared is done so in a way we can understand and measure the impact decisions will have on our lives, and those of the next generations. The next step, understanding and implementing the GayGahlda Changing Tide Framework Agreement. It is important for our Haida citizens to be engaged and involved in the discussions. I will ensure that our voices here are heard by the negotiating team and that we have the resources and time to input our own needs into this process.   

I will work on ways for us all to come together, building on the good work of our previous T’agwan reps; solidify those opportunities and creating more. I invite you all to help me to find ways to come together and strengthen our community in T’agwan through culture, through language, through food, through hosting others, and through sharing and learning.    

I will ensure that there are frequent meetings to update on the activities of the Council of the Haida Nation, as well as organize workshops (weaving, language, drum making), an Urban Haida Feast and food fish distribution. With these initiatives, we will be part of building an even stronger community and Nation.  

We need to work together – the Council of the Haida Nation, Old Massett Village Council, Skidegate Band Council, Old Masset Health Centre, Skidegate Health Centre and First Nations Health Authority. We have many Haida People that are struggling, and we need our government to step up and understand that the decisions made on our behalf have to include all of us. Nothing for us, without us!    

We are all connected through our families, our Clans and our Nation. We need to remember that no matter where we live, we are a strong Haida Nation. 

Haaw’a 
Laanas 
Tamara D. Davidson 


Yaahl Guulaa
Tasha Samuels

Good day to you all, my name is Yaahl Guulaa Golden Raven Tasha Samuels and I would first like to acknowledge and give thanks for my nomination to be one of the T’agwan Council of the Haida Nation representatives. I am from and grew up in Gaw Tlagée, Haida Gwaii and have lived off and on in T’agwan for 15 years. As a proud member of the Haida Nation I acknowledge my duty to bring my education and experience back to serve my Nation in the best way possible. I will work with a lens of ensuring our processes are culturally safe and efficient and I will bring with me the intergenerational political strength from my ancestors and mentors. 

In addition to growing up on Haida Gwaii and seeing many changes in our industries, I believe my educational and professional experience will also contribute to my success in this role which includes, but is not limited to: 

Work Experience 

  • 7 years B.C. Parks experience  
  • 3.5 years’ experience on the HaiCo Board of Directors 
  • 1 year with Lignum Forest Products 
  • 2 years with Indigenous Services Canada  
  • 5 years with First Nations Health Authority (Human Resource, IT/Project and Change Management, and Operations Management)

Educational 

  • A Diploma in Tourism 
  • A Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration  
  • Certificates in each: Project Management, Change Management, Business Analysis

As the successful candidate, I will bring a collaborative attitude to work towards what is best not only for the Haida Nation but also the earth and for future generations. Transparency will be a guiding principle for me in this role as I honour that I will be selected as a representative of the T’agwan Haidas and that each of our member’s opinions and concerns are important. I see myself in this role as bringing a collective perspective to the table not just my own and will encourage our T’agwan Haidas to reach out to me as needed.  

I am process orientated and look for ways to improve efficiency to ensure we all make the best use of our time to focus on what’s important which is bringing our Nation closer to sovereignty of all of Haida Gwaii. We need to push in light of reconciliation for full control of what comes and leaves our abundant island to ensure we can efficiently move towards treaty and be self-governed.     

If you decide to vote for me, I can promise that I will show up and be fully present and transparent with my stance on all items and be open for discussion with my fellow T’agwan Haida’s on a regular basis. I would also like to wish the rest of the candidates well in their campaign and hope everyone votes for who they see best suited to represent. Many haawa’s to all!  

Tasha Samuels 

POLLING DATES AND LOCATIONS

ADVANCE POLL
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 27, 2021
9:00 AM TO 9:00 PM

REGULAR POLL
SATURDAY, DECEMBER 04, 2021
9:00 AM TO 9:00 PM

HLGAAGILDA
SKIDEGATE

GAW TLAGÉE
OLD MASSETT

KXEEN
PRINCE RUPERT

T’AGWAN
VANCOUVER

CHN Administration Office
1 Reservoir Rd
Skidegate, BC

Old Massett Community Hall
348 Eagle Ave
Old Massett, BC

Highliner Plaza Hotel & Conference Centre
815 1st Ave W
Prince Rupert, BC

Vancouver Native Pentecostal Church
304 E 26th Ave,
Vancouver, BC

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